Program Information — Series 1 & 2
Click on a program in the right-hand column to see a description and program notes.

Internal Duets - Cardinal

The cardinal produces low and high notes from different branches of it syrinx. Its song syllables sweep through two octaves in which the hand-off from one branch of the syrinx to the other is seamless.

The cardinal's song can be found on the CD accompanying the book Nature's Music: The Science of Birdsong in which Roderick Suthers explains his work in the chapter "How birds sing and why it matters".

I slowed the cardinal's song using Bias Peak and separated the left and right channels using Bias Deck.

For nice explanations of the syrinx and a recent animation of the cardinal's use of its syrinx in its song, see Cornell Ornithology Lab's "All About Bird Song". I also recommend watching the Suthers Lab's older online multimedia animation of the syrinx of a cardinal: Suthers Lab Animations of the Syrinx.

Series 1
Vocal Range
Importance of Song
Avoiding Monotony
Learning Song
Hip Hop Mimicry
Hummingbird Complexity
Syrinx Anatomy
Internal Duets (Cardinal)
Internal Duets (Cowbird)
Internal Duets (Thrushes)
Syrinx & Pan Pipes

Series 2
Songs & Calls
Call Repertoires
Alarm Calls
Mobbing Calls
Call Notes
Cross-Species Alarms
Lungs & Air Sacs
Circular Breathing